Chance or threat? – expected changes in productivity of silver fir Abies alba Mill. stands in Poland
Szansa czy zagrożenie – prognoza zmian produkcyjności drzewostanów jodłowych Abies alba Mill. w Polsce
Abstract: The study was carried out to determine reliable prediction of perspectives for silver fir Abies alba, one of the most important forest−forming species in upland and mountainous areas of Poland, according to available and up−to−date projections of expected climate changes. Based on key factors, shaping the actual productivity of the species in Poland, a model describing the site productivity, expressed by static site index (SSI) of silver fir was developed and applied to four main climate change scenarios: SSP1−2.6, SSP2−4.5, SSP3−7.0 and SSP5−8.5 provided by global WordClim service. Based on the developed model, it can be concluded that generally the expected climate changes should be considered rather as a threat than an opportunity for the expansion of silver fir in Poland. The future productivity of silver fir is expected to decrease, except the higher mountain locations and certain areas in the northern part of Poland. Despite probable unfavourable changes in the conditions for silver fir, the role of the species will remain very high, especially in mountainous areas where increased productivity can be expected and considering the high potential of the species to coexist in different types of mixed stands.
Key words: climate change, prognosis, site index
Altitudinal expansion of the double spined bark beetle Ips duplicatus (C.R. Sahlberg, 1836) (Col.: Scolytinae) in the western edge of the Carpathians in Poland
Ekspansja kornika zrosłozębnego Ips duplicatus (Sahlb.) (Col.: Scolytinae) w wyższe położenia górskie na zachodnim krańcu polskich Karpat
Abstract: The double spined bark beetle Ips duplicatus, till the last decade of the 20th century, was known as occurring in areas located up to 500−600 m a.s.l. During last decades, the spread to higher altitudes has been observed in Central European countries. In 2014, a limited survey using pheromone baited traps with ID Ecolure was done in Ujsoły Forest District only, and in 2020 extended to 8 forest districts which were located in 5 mountain mesoregions. One Theysohn trap per location was installed and emptied during the entire period of the insect’s flight activity, and the captured beetles were identified and counted. No quantitative data (number of collected beetles) was used for analysis, but only the presence of the species at a given location. In 2014, beetles were collected in 14 out of 22 locations including 11 at an altitude between 700−900 m a.s.l. and on 1 above 900 m a.s.l. In 2020, beetles were collected at 52 out of 98 locations including 12 at an altitude between 700−900 m a.s.l. and at 8 above this altitude. The presence of beetle specimens above 900 m a.s.l. was recorded in the mesoregions of Beskid Śląski and Beskid Żywiecko−Orawski but not in the most southern mesoregion of Beskid Żywiecko−Kysucki. The results from these three mesoregions, located in higher mountains and characterised by a higher share of Norway spruce, indicate the spread of I. duplicatus to higher altitudes as a more general phenomenon which has been observed in the other Central−European countries together with its expansion southward. In the future, the species can be a threat to Norway spruce stands at higher altitudes in the Carpathians taking into account the climatic changes and difficulty in implementing effective control methods of bark beetle populations.
Key words: bark beetles, climate change, distribution, mesoregions, mountains, Picea abies
Optimizing trap placement for monitoring Monochamus galloprovincialis and minimizing bycatch of beneficial insects
Optymalizacja lokalizacji pułapek do monitoringu Monochamus galloprovincialis i ograniczenia odłowów owadów pożytecznych
Abstract: The pine sawyer beetle Monochamus galloprovincialis is the only known vector of the pine wood nematode (PWN) in Europe. Pheromone traps are one of the tools used for monitoring M. galloprovincialis and PWN. Numerous studies have been conducted to improve trapping efficiency, but the effects of habitat type and trap exposure in relation to forest have received the least attention. Bycatch of non−target species has also been rarely considered. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of (1) site type such as forest interior, forest edge, and open field adjacent to forest, (2) open field type (clear−cut or plantation), (3) trap location (west or east) relative to the forest on catches of M. galloprovincialis and selected non−target insect species. The study plots were established in 86−91 years old Scots pine stands and adjacent open fields. White, PTFE−covered, cross−vane traps baited with Galloprotect Pack lure were used for insect capturing. Site type had a significant effect on catches of M. galloprovincialis and 14 non−target species. M. galloprovincialis, Hylurgus ligniperda, Spondylis buprestoides, and Prionychus ater were most abundant at the forest edge. Catches of three longhorn beetles (Acanthocinus aedilis, A. griseus, and Arhopalus rusticus) and three predatory species (Thanasimus formicarius, T. femoralis, and Corticeus pini) had a decreasing trend from the forest interior towards the open field. The opposite was observed for Chalcophora mariana, Phaenops cyanea, Magdalis violacea, Cardiophorus ruficollis, and Pseudocistela ceramboides. The west side of the forests was significantly preferred by M. galloprovincialis (females) and Ph. cyanea, while it was avoided by S. buprestoides, both Thanasimus species, and C. ruficollis. The type of open field had a significant effect on catches of seven non−target species but not on M. galloprovincialis catches. Possible causes of the observed patterns in insect catches are discussed. In summary, for efficient monitoring of M. galloprovincialis with reduced bycatch of beneficial insects traps should be deployed at the westerly exposed forest edge. This trap location can also be recommended for catching higher numbers of forest pests such as Ph. cyanea and H. ligniperda and minimizing bycatch of predatory beetles. Furthermore, trap placement a few meters from the treeline should reduce the probability of bark damage for oviposition and eventual PWN transmission to healthy trees by M. galloprovincialis females attracted to the traps.
Key words: clear−cut, forest edge, forest interior, non−target insects, pine sawyer beetle, sun exposure, wind direction
Economic aspects of silvicultural treatments in oak stands
Ekonomiczne aspekty zabiegów pielęgnacyjnych w drzewostanach dębowych
Abstract: The aim of the study was to economically analyse the costs of silvicultural management treatments in oak stands. The basic research material was obtained from selected forest districts belonging to the Regional Directorate of State Forests in Poznań. The economic analysis concerned only stands in which the share of oak in the species composition of the stand was above 60%. In total, data from 1,644 silvicultural activities performed from 2015−2019 were used for the study. The study analysed five types of tending interventions (groups of activities) that occurred in all of the studied forest districts. In order to demonstrate significant differences in unit cost average values related to the group of activities, the analysis of variance test in a single classification was used. In addition, cluster analysis was used for a more complete interpretation of the data and grouping of the examined elements. After carrying out a significance test, it could be concluded that the group of activities had a significant impact on the unit cost of the activities performed (p<0.000). Cluster analysis made it possible to look for similarities in the overall multi−activity structure of unit costs assigned to individual habitats. The analysis showed how similar individual habitats are to each other in the entire structure of costs incurred for five unique groups of activities. A dissimilarity matrix between the studied factors (group of activities and forest habitat types) and its visualization via a heat map were used in this study. Sorting the map by differences in the dissimilarity matrix allowed us to detect relationships in the cost data. The data mining analysis presented in this paper enabled the identification of factors influencing the level, structure and variability of the costs of tending oak stands.
Key words: costs, economic analysis, oak stands, silviculture
Effect of precise control of irrigation and substrate compaction on seedling growth and root distribution in Norway spruce
Wpływ precyzyjnej kontroli nawadniania i zagęszczenia podłoża na wzrost sadzonek i rozmieszczenie korzeni u świerka pospolitego
Abstract: We analyzed the growth of 1−year−old Norway spruce seedlings in a container nursery with three experimental variants differing in substrate compaction and water supply during irrigation (moisture level control). The nursery material was produced in Hiko V−120SS containers. Each seedling’s height and root collar diameter (RCD) were measured. In addition, the dry mass of the shoots and needles was also determined. The lump of substrate was divided into three equal parts, and the dry mass of the root system was determined separately for three levels of cavity depth (upper, middle and lower). Seedlings grown in the variant with compacted substrate and precise control of substrate moisture level had the maximum height and RCD value. However, the average sturdiness quotient (SQ) of the seedlings in all variants was very high, explaining their low resistance to abiotic factors after planting. Similarly, the ratio of the above−ground part’s dry mass to the root system’s weight (S/R index) was very high, indicating the limited suitability of the seedlings for cultivation in all soil moisture conditions. Controlled irrigation for precise control of moisture level had no significant effect on the growth of seedlings. Similarly, the SQ and Dickson quality index values did not differ significantly. It is, therefore, possible to reduce the cost of seedling cultivation using a soil moisture control system that reduces the amount of water supplied to the production field without any adverse effects on the quality of the seedlings. The dry mass distribution in the root system was almost identical in all experimental variants. Most of the roots were found in the upper part of the root lump, i.e., to a depth of about 3.7 cm. On average, 60% of the total mass of the entire root system was located in this zone; hence, the container used to grow the spruce seedlings did not limit the growth of the root system.
Key words: Dickson quality index, dry mass, Hiko container, Picea abies, sturdiness quotient
The topic of private forests in Polish scientific publications in the period from 1945−2023
Problematyka lasów prywatnych w polskich publikacjach naukowych w okresie 1945−2023
Abstract: The publication presents the results of a systematic review of Polish scientific publications on private forests published in the years from 1945−2023. With the help of Polish national library databases, the results of a review of three forestry journals (Sylwan, Prace IBL/Leśne Prace Badawcze and Folia Forestalia Polonica) and search results using the Google search engine, 104 publications were analysed in terms of content. The results of the analysis allowed two groups of studies to be distinguish, one of which included four topics covered in the scientific publications. In total, the detailed content analysis identified 34 studies that dealt exclusively with private forests. The remaining publications, in which private forests were presented against the background of the topic under discussion, were categorised into four areas. The largest group were publications dealing with afforestation including the implementation of the National Programme to Increase Forest Area (KPZL) of which there were 26 publications. A group of 9 publications dealt with the joint management of private forests including legal regulations and the mechanisms of functioning of land and forest communities. The other two groups dealing with legal aspects related to the management of private forests and the socio−economic importance of private forests including development projections were represented by 8 and 13 studies, respectively. Taking into consideration only the number of publications that appeared in three forestry journals during the period analysed, the proportion of studies dealing with the topic of private forests is a fraction of a percent. Until 1989, private forests were practically non−existent as a subject of research in the scientific literature. After 1989, numerous publications drew attention to private forests from the point of view of forest resource development including the role of private land as a resource for increasing the forest area in Poland. The analysed literature showed that the organisation of non−state forest owners is becoming increasingly difficult against the background of outdated or unclear legal regulations. In recent years, more and more attention has been paid to the socio−economic importance of non−state forests. They are gradually being recognised not only as an important environmental element, but also as a potential source of wood raw materials. Comprehensive studies are needed on the legal status of non−state forests, the expectations of owners, and the possibilities for improving their management. There are no publications available on the amount of private forests owned by non−farmers.
Key words: afforestation, cooperation, farm, management, owner