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Latest Articles

Effect of stand characteristics and environmental factors on the volume increment of oak in Poland
Wpływ cech drzewostanu i czynników środowiskowych na przyrost miąższości dębu w Polsce
Abstract: Volume increment is a valuable indicator of the growth and performance of stands over time. It allows forest managers to assess forest productivity and indicate changes in growth conditions. In forestry practice, growth and productivity models can be developed by integrating volume increment data with environmental factors. The primary objective of this study was to develop a generalized additive model that would explain the influence of tree characteristics, climate and topography on oak volume increment. Our findings underscored the significant impact of basal area, age, height, and relative spacing index on the periodic annual volume increment (PAIv) of oak in Poland. We found that temperature, precipitation, slope and soil type within the study area also had significant effects on PAIv. The developed model explained approximately 43.8% of the variance of the PAIv. Notably, when applied to specific natural forest regions, the explanatory capacity of the model increased significantly, reaching around 64.4%. For smaller areas such as natural forest regions, PAIv was mainly determined by stand characteristics and less influenced by site factors such as slope and climate. This enhanced accuracy enhances its practical value and underscores its utility in distinct forest management contexts.
Key words: environmental effect, forest productivity, GAM, NFI, periodic volume increment
The breast height form factor of pedunculate oak Quercus robur L. growing under the canopy of Scots pine stands in NE Poland and W Ukraine – a preliminary comparative analysis
Pierśnicowa liczba kształtu dębu szypułkowego Quercus robur L. rosnącego pod okapem drzewostanów sosnowych północno−wschodniej Polski i zachodniej Ukrainy – wstępna analiza porównawcza
Abstract: Various stand features, such as canopy closure, crown size, biosocial status and site conditions, have a significant impact on the development of the breast height form factor (f1.3). The regularities of the formation of f1.3 of pedunculate oak Quercus robur developing in open conditions are known, but this parameter in the case of oak growing under the canopy of Scots pine stands has not been analysed in detail so far. We examined the properties of the f1.3 of pedunculate oaks that grew for a long time under the canopy of a Scots pine stand, and after removal of the upper layer, they created a new stand, which was formed from underwood and underbrush in the territory of north−eastern Poland (Polish variant). The breast height form factor was also calculated for oaks that grew in the second layer of the Scots pine stand and were cut down together with trees of the main species in western Ukraine (Ukrainian variant). 100 model trees from 20 stands (Polish variant) and 110 trees from 4 stands (Ukrainian variant) were selected for the analysis. All stands grew in the same type of forest site conditions – fresh mixed broadleaf forest. For all model trees, the volume of the trunk in the bark was determined (in one−meter sections) and the value of the breast height form factor in the bark was calculated using the Complex Smalian’s Formula. The aim of the work was to compare the features of the breast height form factor of pedunculate oak trees under the canopy of a Scots pine stand in various growth conditions and to model the relationship between f1.3 and the value of the diameter at breast height (dbh) (d1.3) and height (h) of trees. It was found that the number of model trees is sufficient to model the defined relationships, and the parameters of these trees were determined with sufficient statistical accuracy. In general, 9 types of formulas were used to model the dependence of f1.3on d1.3 and h. The search for optimal solution was carried out using the least squares method. The decisive statistic for assessing the goodness of fit of the tested formulas was the coefficient of determination R². On the basis of this indicator, the formula that best describes the dependence of f1.3on d1.3 and h was selected. Based on the results of substitutions to the selected formulas, tab− ular data on the dependence of f1.3 on d1.3 and h for the Polish and Ukrainian variants were developed. The obtained f1.3 values of the Polish and Ukrainian variants were relatively lower than the normative data. The trees of the Polish variant had lower values of f1.3 compared to the Ukrainian variant, which proved their higher degree of taper.
Key words: forest site type conditions, fresh mixed broadleaf forest, regression models, stand canopy, tabular data, types of growth
Harvester productivity and tree damage in thinning operations in pine stands in relation to the width of skid trails
Efektywność pozyskania drewna harwesterem i uszkodzenia drzew w zależności od szerokości szlaków zrywkowych
Abstract: Fully mechanised timber harvesting in cut−to−length method (CTL) has a number of advantages compared to tree−length (TL) and whole tree method (WT), including lowering unit costs, increasing productivity and reducing or even eliminating heavy manual labour. The demographic changes we are seeing, and thus the expectations of the workforce and competition in the labour market, mean that fully mechanised work or automation will be essential in the future. The aim of this article is to analyse the damage to remaining trees in the stand and the efficiency of the work in relation to the width of the skid trails (narrow 2.7 m and wide 3.5 m). Analyses were carried out during the first thinning cuts in a 25−year−old pine stand with so− called industrial wood. A small tracked excavator equipped with a harvester head was used in the experimental plots. The efficiency of the work is influenced by the volume of a single tree, the thinning intensity and the stand density. The same variables also determine the effect on the amount of damage in the stand remaining. The parameters characterising the damage to the trees remaining in the stand indicate the occurrence of significantly longer wounds in the sample plots with wide access trails and a higher total area of wounds (+40%) compared to the damage observed in the sample plots with narrow access trails. From the results obtained, it can also be assumed that the very serious damage, deep injures in the wood of trunk and root amputation are random and do not depend on the width of the trails. The results show the importance of choosing the right machine to facilitate work in dense stands. The observed wounds according to Meyer’s tree damage classification do not allow statis− tically significant differences between damage occurring with both narrow and wide skid trails. However, any bark damage and other damage to tree trunks increases the risk of head rot and thus significantly reduces the future potential for top quality timber. Narrow skid trails reduce non−productive areas and simultaneously increase the difficulty of mechanical thinning. However, when using wide skid trails (3.5 m), a higher operating efficiency of approximately 12% was observed.
Key words: cut−to−length method, logging, merchantable timber, skid trails, thinning, tracked harvester
Interspecific interactions in dual cultures of selected fungal species inhabiting Scots pine trees
Interakcje międzygatunkowe w kulturach dualnych wybranych gatunków grzybów zasiedlających drewno sosny zwyczajnej
Abstract: Global warming is the result of the impact of many factors on the environment, the most important of which is high carbon dioxide emissions. In order to reduce the emission of this greenhouse gas into the atmosphere, the development of future−proof and effective methods involving longterm storage of carbon dioxide is being considered in the form of plant biomass. Unfortunately, the ability to store carbon dioxide in woody biomass is limited by fungi. The presence of numerous fungi on the wood raw material leads through their growth to the rapid decomposition of wood, thus accelerating the release of CO2 from biomass into the Earth’s atmosphere. Therefore, laboratory studies were carried out demonstrating interspecies interactions with the aim of examining in vitro biotic interactions between selected fungi, e.g. competition or mutualism. Cultures of seven selected fungi were combined in various combinations of dual cultures. The fungi species used in the research were: Ophiostoma minus, Trichaptum fuscoviolaceum, Serpula himantioides, Stereum sanguinolentum, Skeletocutis amorpha, Skeletocutis sp. and Armillaria ostoyae. The first laboratory experiments were carried out on a medium (potato−dextrose agar PDA). In the experiments carried out, first of all, the growth possibilities and speed of development of single fungi cultures and their dual fungus−fungus cultures were discussed. Then, studies were performed on the influence of both single cultures of fungi and their double cultures of the fungusfungus type on the decomposition of the sawdust from pine sapwood and heartwood. The aim of the study was to assess the rate of wood substrate decomposition by fungi with differenttrophic preferences. The conducted research constitutes the basis for developing a future methodology for long−term carbon dioxide retention in woody biomass. This assumption is the basic foundation for the practical creation of future−proof and environmentally significant Forest Carbon Farms in outdoor conditions. Moreover, based on the research conducted, it will be possible to develop innovative fungicidal preparations. The obtained results under the described experimental conditions showed that the fungal species whose cultures reached the largest size and thus limited the growth of other fungi to the greatest extent were O. minus, T. fuscoviolaceum, S. himantioides. However, the species whose development was severely limited were Skeletocutis sp., and A. ostoyae. Moreover, the obtained results of testing the possibility sawdust colonisation from sapwood and heartwood confirmed that single cultures of T. fuscoviolaceum and S. himantioides have the ability to intensively decompose both types of sawdust. It was found that the dual cultures of O. minus and S. himantioides caused the greatest loss of sapwood sawdust mass, while the dual cultures of S. sanguinolentum and S. amorpha led to the most intense reduction of heartwood sawdust.
Key words: Basidiomycota, interspecific competition, rot fungi, wood decay
Water retention capacity of red−stemmed feathermoss Pleurozium schreberi Mitt.
Pojemność wodna rokietnika pospolitego Pleurozium schreberi Mitt.
Abstract: The forest has a high water retention capacity, which is due to dead wood but also to a layer of moss, forming clusters in the lower forest floor. Mosses use rhizoids to collect water from the soil, but they also use their aboveground parts to collect water in the form of vapour or raindrops. The aim of the present work was to investigate the impact of initial humidity on water retention capacity of fresh samples and maximum water capacity for dry samples. The research material used in the present study was collected in the Olkusz Forest District. The samples were cut into equal pieces of the same size. Each sample was weighed before and after rainfall simulation in laboratory conditions. The samples were divided into fractions of stems, rhizoids, and soil. The performed analyses demonstrated that the water retention capacity of moss is extremely important for the water cycle. The average sample capacity is 0.58 [g/g], which translates into 24% of the total rainfall. As much as a third of the rainfall is rainfall is retained by mosses that grow on the lower layer of the forest, which makes them an important part of the water cycle in nature. The experiments have additionally shown that the higher the initial moisture, i.e. the more water in the fresh moss samples collected with the lump of earth, the higher the maximum water retention capacity. The dependence of the initial moisture on the components of the sample structure is explained by 43.22% variation. As much as 56.78% of the variability of the initial moisture content may depend on other factors that were not included in this study. These may include a different number of rhizoids, but also the degree of their binding/bonding of the soil. On the other hand, the lack of correlation of the water retention capacity, either the current one or that related to the dried weight of the sample, with the structural components of the sample tells us a lot about the complexity of the link between the moss and the soil via the rhizoids. The results obtained in the present study are in line with the research on the hydrological properties of forest ecosystems; they also indicate that the role of moss in the forest is very important, but not yet fully understood.
Key words: current water retention, forest floor, moss, retention reservoir, storage water capacity
Harvesting Scots pine wood in the state−owned forests in 2006−2020, taking into consideration abiotic disasters
Pozyskanie drewna sosny zwyczajnej w Lasach Państwowych w latach 2006−2020 z uwzględnieniem klęsk żywiołowych
Abstract: The article shows the assortment structure of Scots pine Pinus sylvestris wood harvested in the state−owned forests from 2006 to 2020, separated into Regional Directorates of The State Forests National Forest Holding (commonly known as State Forests), as well as the influence of natural disasters on varying pine wood harvesting. The analyses were performed on the basis of data from reports generated by the State Forests Information System (SILP). During the examined timeframe, the Regional Directorate of The State Forests (RDSF) in Szczecin exhibited the highest rate of pine wood harvesting, while RDSF in Kraków demonstrated the lowest rate in both the large−size and medium−size wood assortments groups, with a few limited exceptions. In general, from 2006 to 2020, more medium−size timber was harvested than large−size timber. Lower production costs and the convenience of wood extracting operations are driving the assortment change from W0 to WK. The lengths of WK logs are better suited to current market demands.
Key words: abiotic damage, assortment structure, Pinus sylvestris