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The oldest scientific journal of forestry
Issue: 2018_8

Zastosowanie danych z satelity Sentinel−2 do szacowania rozmiaru szkód spowodowanych w lasach huraganowym wiatrem w sierpniu 2017 roku
Assessment of forest damage caused by the August 2017 hurricane using Sentiel−2 satellite data

Abstract: Extreme weather events such as hurricanes, floods or fires become more and more common phenomena in Europe. In August 2017, strong wind accompanied by heavy thunderstorms caused severe damage over the large area in central and western Poland. According to rapid damage assessment prepared by the State Forests authorities a few days after the windthrow, ca 79.7 thousand hectares of forest was damaged and 9.8 million of cubic meters of wood was lost. Assessment of such a large−scale forest damage is difficult without using the remote sensed data. In this study, we examined the potential of the European satellite Sentinel−2 data for assessment of the forest damage caused by the windthrow. The assessment was performed using a difference between a normalized difference moisture index (NDMI) calculated based on the pre− and post−damage Sentinel−2 images. NDMI was calculated based on NIR (824 nm) and SWIR (1610 nm) bands. The result of this study showed the total damage area in forest is equal to 35.8 thousand hectares, of which 27.7 thousand hectares was damaged within the State Forests and 8.1 thousand hectares outside the State Forests administration. These figures are much lower than the estimates by the State Forests, regarding the forest damage within the State Forests and higher comparing to estimations in the non−state forest. In fact, these figures are comparable with the heavily damage areas assigned to clearance by the State Forests. The accurate comparison of the results was not possible due to the lack of up−to−date information on forest damage. Sentinel−2 data revealed to be perfect data for large scale damage assessment and postdamage forest monitoring mainly due to the wide swath up to 290 km. The limitation of the optical sensors is the cloudiness. Unfortunately, in the case of this analysis, the first cloud free image was acquired 6 weeks after the windthrow. It reduces the potential of the single−source data for rapid assessment of damages.

Key words: forest damage, windthrow, remote sensing

Sylwan 162 (8):619-627, 2018. DOI:

Wpływ postępowania ochronnego na występowanie kornika drukarza Ips typographus (L.) w Dolinie Kościeliskiej w Tatrzańskim Parku Narodowym
Effect of forest protection strategy on the occurrence of the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus (L.) in the Kościeliska Valley in the Tatra National Park

Abstract: In the end of 2013 the Norway spruce stands in the Kościelska Valley in the Tatra National Park (S Poland) were severely damaged by the wind. In the next year about 22,000 m³ of timber from broken and fallen trees was processed and removed from the active protection zone, whilst in the strict protection zone those trees were left. In 2014, when the presented survey started, the infestation of lying and surrounding standing trees was very low, but starting from 2015 an intensive bark beetle Ips typographus outbreak affected the survived stands. No−intervention strategy was implemented by the national park in both zones, regardless their formal status at that time as well. In 2015 a set of 10 observation plots (200 trees in total) was established in both active and passive (strict) protection zones (5 plots in each zone). In 2017 a new set of 12 plots (240 trees in total) was installed (6 plots in each zone). On each plot the breast height diameter of all trees was measured and the relative mortality of trees (share of attacked spruces) was recorded each year. The infestation density and sex ratio were defined on the 25×25 cm bark samples taken from 138 trees in 2 trunk sections located 1.5−2.0 above the ground and in the midway between tree and crown bases. The bark beetle attack on living spruces in 2015 differed between the active and strict protection zones. The relative tree mortality was lower in active than in passive protection zone (20 and 39% respectively), but later it gradually came to be similar in both parts of the area (73.3 and 77.5%, respectively in 2017). In the initial outbreak phase, thinner (weaker) trees were attacked, and in the following years – stronger ones, although in the active protection zone the opposite pattern occurred initially. The attack density decreased in subsequent years, being higher in active protection zone, with gradually decreasing difference between zones. Thicker trees were attacked with lower intensity. The share of females, higher in active protection zone (68.2 vs. 63.9%), gradually decreased to (57.9 vs. 51.2%). The initial decrease of bark beetle attack intensity in the active protection zone gradually disappeared after the no−intervention strategy was applied. The resulting extended bark beetle infestation and its increasing intensity in both parts of the area, demonstrate the appropriateness and effectiveness of active protection measures applied in 2014.

Key words: bark beetles, Norway spruce, wind damage, outbreaks, nature conservation

Sylwan 162 (8):628-637, 2018. DOI:

Przestrzenna autokorelacja cech biometrycznych drzew w górskich drzewostanach świerkowych
Spatial autocorrelation of the biometric features of trees in mountain Norway spruce stands

Abstract: The formation of the stand structure interacts with the processes of growth and competition. Previous observations mainly focused on the analysis of the type of tree distribution resulting from these processes. Development of spatial diversity of tree parameters is less known issue. The research was carried out in mountain Norway spruce stands with a large variety of taxation parameters located in the Beskid Żywiecki Mts. (southern Poland). The analysis of spatial autocorrelation of biometric features was carried out with the use of the mark correlation function, and the type of tree distribution was examined using the pair correlation function. In younger, less tended stands of high tree density, a stronger spatial autocorrelation of the tree biometric features was found. The strongest autocorrelation was observed for volume, weaker for the breast height diameter, while the weakest one was reported for height. The analysis indicated that density dependent competition affects the autocorrelation of biometric features more strongly than the type of tree distribution. The range of the tree perception zone determined on the basis of the autocorrelation analysis of features is greater or equal to the width of the inhibition zone determined on the basis of the point pattern type analysis.

Key words: spatial autocorrelation, kmm(r) mark correlation function, g(r) pair correlation function

Sylwan 162 (8):638-647, 2018. DOI:

Wpływ mechanicznego przygotowania gleby na zrębie na jej cechy
Effect of mechanical site preparation on features of the soil in a clear−cut area

Abstract: In most cases, mechanical site preparation (MSP) is a precondition if high−quality (natural or artificial) regeneration of forests is to be achieved. However, the measures involved here may differ in terms of the level of intervention of the soil environment, at both the surface and deeper down. The choice of MSP methods should be based on climatic conditions, site type and the species whose renewal is sought, while the effect should improve conditions for the emergence and growth of the young generation of trees, with the influence on the soil environment being limited as far as possible. The research sought to compare physical and chemical features of the soils of the microhabitats created in clear−cut areas as a result of MSP using either an LPz double mould−board forest plough (furrow and ridge), an active plough (furrow and ridge) and a forest mill (belt and beyond the belt) as compared with unscarified soil. Investigated physical features included grain size (content of sand, silt and clay), bulk density and actual moisture, while the chemical ones: pHH2O and pHKCl, exchangeable acidity, total content of N and C and the C/N ratio, P2O5 content and base cations Mg2+, Ca2+, K+ and Na+. he most invasive MSP method for the soil environment is the active plough, which leaves the ridge exposed to processes of the decomposition of organic matter (and the highest content of N, C, Mg2+, Ca2+ and K+). Equally, this method may pose the greatest threat of mineral components of the soil being leached, with impoverishment of the habitat ensuing. The forest mill in turn offers the least invasive MSP. Most of the physical and chemical features of soil (other than exchangeable acidity and pHH2O and pHKCl) oth in the belt areas and beyond them differed little from the those characterising non−scarified soil. Also the analysed features determined for the furrows ploughed by the active or LPz ploughs or the belt prepared using the forest mill did not differ significantly.

Key words: forest plough, active plough, forest mill, soil scarification, clear−cut

Sylwan 162 (8):648-657, 2018. DOI:

Zasady gospodarki leśnej w kontekście troski o dobro wspólne i zdrowie publiczne w Polsce
Principles of forest management in the context of concern for the common welfare and public health in Poland

Abstract: This study analyses the interdisciplinary issue of the objective of legal provisions regarding the four principles of forest management listed in the Act on Forests and their significance for the common welfare and public health in Poland. The common welfare consists of the general determinants necessary for the integral development of people and society, and these determinants include public health, which consists of organised activity focused on the health of the entire society. The scope of the study included selected aspects of the statutory principles of forest management in the Republic of Poland, which constitute one of the legal mechanisms for forest protection. The research examined legal acts and available literature. In the adopted study hypothesis, it was recognised that the principles of forest management applicable in the Republic of Poland in the intention of the legislator are to primarily serve the common welfare and public health, which does not exclude the existence of parallel goals. The principles of forest management consistently introduce the priority of nature conservation over other economic and social functions of forest areas. These principles aim not only to preserve existing forests, but also to increase their area or productivity. This is due to the recognition of forests as an irreplaceable and nonalternative social good, which determines the development of the state and society, introduces balance and self−regulation in the natural environment, and provides income from wood and other forest resources. The existence of healthy forests contributes to the improvement of society’s general health condition on many levels, including thanks to the improvement of air quality, the recreational values of forests, and the availability of forest flora and fauna. Thus, the obligations of forest owners arising from the statutory principles of forest management serve to achieve various social benefits, which constitute the common welfare, in particular, care for public health.

Key words: legal values, environment protection, benefits from forests, social development

Sylwan 162 (8):658-663, 2018. DOI:

Toponimy a zasięg występowania drzew na przykładzie rozmieszczenia buka zwyczajnego w Polsce
Toponyms and tree range – a case study of European beech distribution in Poland

Abstract: The paper presents the inventory of place names (toponyms) connected to European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). This tree species reaches its eastern distribution limit in Poland and covers around 5.9% of forest area in the country. Due to the fact that its occurrence depends mostly on climatic conditions it is present on the west, north and south, but not in the central and eastern part of Poland. The aim of this study was to compare, using geographic information system (GIS) tools, spatial distribution of toponyms derived from the core ‘buk’ (i.e. beech in Polish) with present occurrence of this tree known from botanical studies, and its natural limits described in the literature. Thanks to National Register of Geographical Names 1314 topographic objects names derived from beech were determined and classified into several groups of origin. Around 38% of phyto−toponyms are names of settlements or their parts. The results of spatial analysis of this objects show great similarity with present day distribution of this species in Poland. As much as 75% of them are located within the area presently covered with Fagus sylvatica (according to European Forest Genetic Resources Program) and around 92% within its range limit. Some regions where the density of phyto−toponyms is quite high and which nowadays are covered by other species than beech were also delimited (e.g. Dalkowskie Hills or Bytów Lakeland). This results suggest that European beech may be the natural representative of local dendroflora, but due to the changes in land cover it was replaced by other species. This hypothesis seems to be confirmed by palaeoecological studies. Huge similarity of distribution of toponyms derived from beech and distribution of this tree known from the literature shows that this method have a great potential as a reliable, simple and cheap proxy in studies on the spatial range of the species.

Key words: phyto−toponyms, <>emFagus sylvatica, National Register of Geographical Names, toponymy

Sylwan 162 (8):664-670, 2018. DOI:

Wpływ zasobności drzewostanów sosnowych na ustalanie ekonomicznego wieku dojrzałości rębnej
Impact of Scots pine stand growing stock on determining the optimal economic rotation age

Abstract: The stand volume is one of the forest inventory characteristic determined during the field work aimed at planning operations in the tree stands. Determining the optimal rotation age is an important decision issue in the forest management. In turn, the key factor that determines the choice of the method for determining the rotation age of the tree stands is the production target. Depending on the rotation age, a specific structure of quantity, quality and dimensions of particular timber assortments is obtained. It seems reasonable that the economic rotation age is one of the main criteria taken into account when planning forest management in tree stands or forest district. The aim of the paper is to assess the impact of growing stock on determining the rotation age of Scots pine stands in particular site index classes. We compared the tabular (i.e. based on data from yield tables) and real (i.e. based on data from the Information System of the State Forests) volume of pine stands. The analysis was based on the forest description data, the amount of the harvested timber and economic data: timber price as well as the costs of harvesting, skidding and production of assortments. The optimal economic rotation age was determined as the point of intersection of the curve describing the average and current increment of the value of Scots pine stands. The research showed that the rotation age of stands is related to the site index class and whether real or tabular results are analysed. The optimal rotation age for Scots pine tree stands is lower in the real data model from 10 to 23 years from that calculated on the basis of tabular data.

Key words: timber price, rotation age, optimization methods timber production, site class index

Sylwan 162 (8):671-678, 2018. DOI:

Udział oraz dokładność szacowania pozostałości zrębowych w ogólnej masie pozyskanego drewna
Share and accuracy of estimation of logging residues in the total volume of harvested timber

Abstract: Due to the observed impacts of climate change on the natural environment, the demand for energy from renewable sources is growing, especially in the last decades. One of the possibilities in this respect is the use of forest biomass, especially that one which comes from logging residues. This type of wood raw material is obtained primarily in mature forests and during late thinnings. Estimation of the expected volume of logging residues from a particular cutting site is currently carried out in the State Forests, National Forest Holding with an accuracy oscillating at an acceptable level of ±40%. The purpose of this study was to estimate the share of logging residues in the total volume of the harvested biomass and to determine the difference and error between the estimated volume to be sold and actually harvested. The research was carried out at the 164 logging sites located in 10 forest districts of north−eastern part of Poland. The average volume of logging residues was 37.7 ±14.4 m³/ha, and the average error of their estimation was –6.1%.

Key words: timber harvesting, forest biomass, logging residues, estimation

Sylwan 162 (8):679-687, 2018. DOI:

Biomasa leśna jako odnawialne źródło energii – konsekwencje dla leśnictwa
Forest biomass as a renewable energy source – consequences for forestry

Abstract: The current provisions in the EU directive, applicable to the signatories of the document, assume reaching by 2020 a share of at least 20% of energy coming from renewable sources. The EU Parliament demands changes to the current directive on forest biomass and its contribution to the use of renewable energy. The Parliament considers it expedient to increase the amount of forest biomass obtained, including wood in various processing states, treating this solution as one of the active methods of replacing the energy derived from fossil fuels. The definition proposed by the EU Parliament states that countries and industrial plants in their areas can receive financial assistance and also be included in the group of energy users ‘from renewable sources’ if they obtain it from the combustion of wood, which will be collected only for this purpose. Such a case has led to the protest of over 750 scientists from around the world. In a letter sent from researchers to the EU, it was found that only harvested forest biomass coming exclusively from logging residues and wood waste, and not from wood intended for other use, should be taken into account for the purpose. Signatories of the letter warn that this change puts at risk both the global climate goals and maintaining the sustainability of the world’s forests. At the heart of the argument is the conviction of scientists that the defect of the directive is based on such a construction of regulations that will cause actions that cause expansive damage to forests in the world and accelerate the occurring climate change. The proposed solution is to limit the amount of forest biomass obtained only to the part that qualifies according to the directive, for logging residues and wood waste. The real danger, including concerning the stability of forests, is the possibility of overestimating the forest’s production capacity in supplying forest biomass. This claim is not an expression of academic caution. It is a real threat. The history of overestimation of forest potential is as long as the history of human development and in each case ended up with a total degradation of the forest and the lack of resources that forced migration of the population. This threat, both on a global scale and for our country, is high, first of all, because the implementation of energy policy assumptions, just like an agricultural policy, in each case leads to the direct growth of producers’ incomes. They are always higher, as are profits in other economic sectors, from revenue received from forest management. This income asymmetry may stimulate in our country, and in many countries of the world is already stimulating, changes in forest management leading to the reduction of forest biological diversity, as well as the growth of deforestation.

Key words: renewable energy sources, forest management

Sylwan 162 (8):688-695, 2018. DOI:

Drewno w budownictwie oraz przedmiotach życia codziennego na terenie Kielecczyzny od końca XVII do początku XX wieku
Wood species used in construction and the production of everyday objects on the Kielecczyzna region from the end of the 17 th century to the beginning of the 20 th century

Abstract: The aim of the study was to research which wood species were used to make constructions and everyday objects in the Świętokrzyski, Rural Town, and Manor sectors of the Ethnographic Park (an open−air museum) in Tokarnia (central Poland). The objects on display are in the natural village environment. Apart from the traditional architecture there are also permanent exhibitions of furnishings belonging to people of different social classes. In all investigated sectors we found thirty five items. Wood species were determined using the macroscopic method. The Ethnographic Park archives contain residual information about wood species. Larch was the most commonly used wood species in the whole area. Other species used in the architecture include oak, pine and fir. Chairs and beds were made from pine and oak. For upright furniture, oak and less often pine were used. The other wood species used in this kind of furniture were larch, ash, beech and walnut. Kitchen utensils were mostly made from pine, poplar, birch, beech and oak. School utensils were made from beech, birch and pine. Oak, beech and birch were used in others items. Wood species used in construction and the production of everyday objects in the Kielce region from the end of the 17 th century to the beginning of the 20 th century. Localization and investigation into others traditional objects in świętokrzyskie voivodeship should be further discussed in the next study. Moreover, maps of tree stands from the end of the 17th century to the beginning of the 20 th century should be analysed. Consideration of these aspects may help find the reason why larch was the most popular wood species in the Ethnographic Park in Tokarnia.

Key words: wood species, open−air museum, wooden architecture, Tokarnia

Sylwan 162 (8):696-704, 2018. DOI:

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