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The oldest scientific journal of forestry
Issue: 2017_5

Kierunki modyfikacji statusu Lasów Państwowych w Polsce
Trends in modification of the status of the State Forests in Poland

Abstract: Over the last years, criticism of the State Forests policy has been becoming more and more frequent in the press. For that reason it is very important to inspire changes in the State Forests organisation system that will result in its adaptation to the changing requirements of the social market economy. From the economic point of view one of the most important problem is that the State Forests is an economic organisation without legal personality. This fact facilitates unjust criticism of this entity that leads to restriction in its economic activity and eventually decreases maximum gains from its resources. We present trends of changes from status quo across legitimate company to joint stock union and the budget unit. It is proposed to confer legal personality on the forest economic units so they become legitimate companies. Moreover it is also suggested to use the State Forests profits as evaluation criteria of its economic activity. The generated profits should be sufficient to protect owner (i.e. the state) interests and is intended to implement them to achieve important social and economic features. In addition, a new motivation system based on the incomes considering the interest of the state, company and the employers should be developed. In order to reduce conflicts that arise from limited ability to use environmental and social functions, efforts should be made to precisely determine leading functions of chosen forest areas. The main goal of the proposed legal and organizational reform of the State Forests is to create conditions to generate higher legal revenues from various from of forest activity and allocate them for implementation of non−economic forest functions. This would make possible to achieve greater social acceptance of actions made by the franchise.

Key words: forest economics, legal status, organisation, changes trend

Sylwan 161 (5):355-364, 2017. DOI:

Wpływ konkurencji na przyrost grubości drzew w wyżynnych lasach mieszanych o złożonej budowie
Effect of competition on the diameter growth of trees in mixed upland forests with complex structure

Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of competition on diameter growth of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) and European hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) in forests with complex structure. For each tree we calculated set of 20 competition indexes in 4 variants for determining the scale of the competitors influence. The use of such a set of indices, allowed to describe accurately the competition between trees in the specific conditions for the particular tree species. Given species belong to the group of shade−tolerant trees. The species composition of the tree stands and their structure are the results of long−lasting natural processes, which is different than in the majority of Polish forests. The empirical material collected in the years 1993 and 2003 in four sample plots of 0.5 ha each located in natural stands of the Roztocze National Park in south−eastern Poland. The relationships between the competition and the growth were analysed using generalized additive models. This method allows to extend of the standard linear model, by taking into account non−linear function of each variable. One of the option of quantifying competition processes is the use of competition indices. The competition situation of an individual tree was described using distance−independ and distance−depend indices. Each of analysed species reacts differently on competition. Among the three analyzed species, the best competition index CI15 explained 48.3% of the variation diameter growth of European beech (tab. 2). The competition index CI3 explained only 26.1% of the variation diameter growth of European hornbeam (tab. 2). It turned out to be the worst result for the described species. The competition index CI14 explained 31.1% of the variation diameter growth of silver fir (tab. 2). Additional use of DBH in the models, increased values of the coefficient of determination, and extended the possibilities to use the developed models.

Key words: competition indices, natural stands, Roztocze National Park

Sylwan 161 (5):365-378, 2017. DOI:

Zagrożenie sosny zwyczajnej (Pinus sylvestris L.) w Polsce ze strony Gibberella circinata
Threat to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Poland from Gibberella circinata

Abstract: Since its initial discovery in 1945, pitch canker caused by Gibberella circinata (anamorph Fusarium circinatum) has become one of the most important pine diseases in the world. It infests 57 pine species (including Pinus sylvestris) and Douglas−fir. F. circinatum has been reported in both nurseries and forests on all continents except Australia and Oceania. Both vegetative and reproductive parts of the host plant (i.e. stem, branches, roots, flowers, cones and seeds) can be infected by F. circinatum. For mature trees, the main symptoms include bleeding resinous cankers on the stem and branches as well as tree death. In nurseries, F. circinatum causes pre− and post−emergence damping off as well as mortality of older seedlings. Dispersal of fungal spores occurs through air, water splash, soil, insect vectors and translocation of the infected plant material. Currently there are no effective means of controlling pitch canker, although there is ongoing research into using chemical, physical and biological methods, quarantine and breeding for resistance to control this disease. The occurrence of the disease depends mainly on the presence and density of the host species, favorable climatic conditions (especially high humidity), presence of suitable vectoring and wounding agents and various stress factors. Taking into account the above−mentioned factors, threat to Scots pine in Poland should be considered marginal, but it cannot be ruled out completely. KEY WORDS

Key words: Fusarium circinatum, invasive alien species, quarantine pests

Sylwan 161 (5):379-384, 2017. DOI:

Podatność sadzonek sosny zwyczajnej i świerka pospolitego na infekcję opieńką ciemną w warunkach podwyższonej koncentracji CO2 w powietrzu
Scots pine and Norway spruce seedlings susceptibility to infection by Armillaria ostoyae under increased CO2 concentration

Abstract: Comparative cultivation experiment was carried out in the greenhouse to verify the assumption that increased air CO2 concentration (up to 1000 ppm) stimulates the infection intensity and mortality rate of Scots pine and Norway spruce seedlings subjected to the artificial inoculation with Armillaria ostoyae (Romagn.) Herink. It was found that increased air CO2 concentration reduces the intensity of pine and spruce seedlings infection by A. ostoyae, what was expressed both by the greater number of healthy and lower number of died seedlings at the end of 16−months−long experiment. However, the statistical significance of the observed differences was confirmed in case of only one out of three A. ostoyae isolates used in the experiment. It was also found that during the first 12 months of the experiment growth of pine and spruce seedlings was significantly stimulated by 1000 ppm air CO2 concentration compared to the ambient air conditions (approximately 380 ppm CO2) with not statistically significant effect of A. ostoyae presence. It was manifested for both tree species with significantly higher values of diameter at the stem base in all variants subjected to increased air CO2 concentration. No such difference was observed for the height of seedlings. All the findings suggest that elevated air CO2 concentration may compensate negative impact of disease on growth at the early stages of pathogen attack.

Key words: Armillaria ostoyae, growth and mortality of seedlings, infection intensity, CO²

Sylwan 161 (5):385-394, 2017. DOI:

Określenie rozdzielczości przestrzennej wielospektralnych zdjęć satelitarnych optymalnej do detekcji martwych drzew na obszarach leśnych
Determining the spatial resolution of multispectral satellite images optimal to detect dead trees in forest areas

Abstract: The mainstream of remotely sensed methodology for identifying the tree stand condition is based on spectral responses registered by a multispectral sensor as a digital image. The changes in spectral properties are caused by dying leaves, needles or whole trees. In further steps, the relationship between the spectral values (radiometry) registered in a multispectral satellite image and the health condition of trees should be determined. The most frequent situation includes the one whem dying stand (sensu single tree) occupies the area of <5 m². Therefore the remotely sensed data for determining sanitary conditions of trees must be of a very high spatial resolution (e.g. WorldView2 or 3, GeoEye−1, Pleiades) on one hand and at the same time favourable for the vegetation studies, i.e. utilizing suitable spectral bands and be of low acquisition cost (e.g. RapidEye, LANDSAT−7, ETM +, LANDSAT−8 OLI). Thus a compromise between spatial and spectral resolution should be found to answer the question at what resolution it is possible to clearly separate the damaged tree. The scope of the research included testing of selected methods of satellite image processing and analysis in terms of defining the optimal spatial resolution, which was performed on simulated images obtained for the area of the Beskidy Mountains (S Poland). Pixel size on simulated images was downgraded to the size corresponding to the currently functioning satellite systems. Consequently the obtained material for comparison was free from influence of external factors such as the differences in: time and weather conditions, the geometry of satellite image acquisition, light at the surface of the treetops and phenological vegetation. For each image we used vegetation indices (NDVI and GDVI) and supervised classification. These tests and the obtained results allowed to draw conclusions about the optimal satellite image resolution that can be used to detect damaged or dead stands.

Key words: VHR image, vegetation index, multispectral analysis, image classification

Sylwan 161 (5):395-404, 2017. DOI:

Prototyp stacji pogodowej dla potrzeb leśnictwa – badania pilotażowe
Prototype of the weather station for the needs of forestry – a pilot study

Abstract: The aim of the study was to design a weather station dedicated for applications in the forestry. The device is thought to be used to measure temperature, pressure, humidity and sunlight and to record that data to the microSD memory card supplementing also the information on the time of measurement. The objective of the field part of the study was to gather accurate meteorological data from the interior of the forest to the geostatistical analysis, necessary for breeding purposes. Here we present the assumptions for technical equipment and describe the components of the device, including the systems of sensor and control. In the further stage of the study we performed the comparative test of the prototype with a professional weather station. The results show a very strong correlation between data form both devices, while the average error relative is at a very satisfactory level: temperature (0.15°C), relative humidity (–3.73%), pressure (–3.37 hPa) and light intensity (–0.82 klx). The project proved that it is possible to construct simple and economically grounded weather station. The total cost of presented prototype does not exceed 500 PLN (ca. 110 US$). We suggest to continue further research and development of the network of similar weather stations. It may allow to create a model of meteorological factors for bigger areas.

Key words: Arduino™, Stevenson Screen, sensors meteorological parameters, forest

Sylwan 161 (5):405-412, 2017. DOI:

Wzory do określania pierśnicowej liczby kształtu mieszańców selekcyjnych topoli
Equations for diameter at the breast height form factor of poplar and its hybrids

Abstract: Knowledge of diameter at the breast height (DBH), tree height and form factor allows to estimate tree volume, which is one of the most important measures in forestry. The paper presents empirical equations for the determination of DBH form factor of different species and hybrids of Populus sp. The study was set up on short−rotation plantation in Wichrowo Forest District (northern Poland). Four poplar hybrids at the age of six were taken into account: P. × generosa × P. trichocarpa, P. trichocarpa, P. maximowiczii × P. trichocarpa, Populus × canadensis. In total, 427 trees were felled and individually measured in one meter sections. The estimation equations are based on the relationships between form factor and one or some independent variables derived from diameter at breast height and height. We used determination coefficient as a goodness−of−fit measure. In addition, standard error of estimates from this dataset was calculated. The standard error values varied from 5.8 to 6.6% depending on the formulae and Populus hybrids. Th e equations proposed in this paper enable the determination of the discussed form factor for varied poplar cultivars and can be treated as a regional equations.

Key words: Populus, form factor, empirical equations

Sylwan 161 (5):413-421, 2017. DOI:

Preferencje społeczne dotyczące rekreacji w lasach Mazowieckiego Parku Krajobrazowego w latach 2000 i 2012
Social preferences regarding recreation in forests of the Mazowiecki Landscape Park in 2000 and 2012

Abstract: The article presents the changes in the preferences of people vacationing in the forests of the Mazowiecki Landscape Park (MPK) in the years 2000−2012. The study covered the preferences for the frequency and duration of rest in the forest and the places and forms of recreation carried out in the MPK forests. These preferences were established on the basis of surveys conducted in the field. In 2000, a questionnaire was sent to 755 people vacationing in the MPK forests. In 2012, the survey covered 390 people vacationing within the MPK. In both cases, the survey involved people over 18 years of age. Preferences of respondents in both studies were compared using the chi−square independence test. The results showed that within twelve years the preferences of respondents in the frequency range of leisure, choice of the place and forms of recreation changed significantly. There was an increase in the number of respondents frequently utilising the MPK forests for recreation and leisure interested in areas equipped with appropriate recreational infrastructure. The share of respondents making such recreational activities in forests as horse riding, cycling and observing nature significantly increased, while the preferences for the duration of rest in the forest have not changed. Still, the MPK forests are primarily a place of the weekend rest. The results indicate that the preferences of recreational users of the forest are largely related to the scope of access to and management of the forest.

Key words: tourism and recreation management, forest utilization, social preferences, leisure in forest

Sylwan 161 (5):422-429, 2017. DOI:

Stopień uszkodzenia drzewostanów bukowych Ziemi Kłodzkiej
Degree of damage to beech stands in the Kłodzko Region

Abstract: The study presents the assessment of damage to beech stands using four methods, including that taking into account the radial increment. The condition of stands in 2016, and the growth response of trees to the environmental changes since 1956 are described. The measurements and observations were carried out on 18 sample plots (tab. 1) located in south−western Poland. The mean defoliation accounts for 32.5% ranging from 16.9 to 56.9%, while the average defoliation class value is 1.62 ranging from 0.75 to 2.38. The proportion of trees was found to be the highest (approx. 60%) in class of moderate damage (fig. 1a). The mean value of vitality is 1.17 (ranging from 0.75 to 2.38). The proportion of trees in vitality classes differs significantly from that in defoliation classes. The highest number of trees (approx. 80%) was found to be within damage class of weakened trees (fig. 1b). The assessment of damage to trees based on synthetic damage index (defoliation and vitality combined using formula [1]) is similar to the assessment method based on tree vitality. The mean value is 1.07, ranging from 0.63 to 1.70. The largest proportion of trees (over 80%) was found to be within class 1 (fig. 1c). The index SynZ combines defoliation and vitality, as well as the growth response of trees over the last 15 years according to formula [2]. Its values range from 0.82 to 1.79 with 1.21 on average. The largest proportion of trees (over 70%) was found to be within damage class 1 (fig. 1d). The response of trees to environmental changes is an important indicator of the growth conditions. The proportion of trees with negative growth responses increases from period to period, while the proportion of trees with neutral and positive responses decreases (fig. 2). The analysed beech stands show fairly large differences in the level of the damage. The most likely cause of this situation are droughts occurring in recent growing seasons, especially in 2012. Of the methods deployed to assess damage to beech trees, the morphological−growth one is the most accurate, but the most laborious. Therefore, it is preferable to use a synthetic damage index as both tree defoliation and vitality can also be assessed outside the growing season.

Key words: Fagus sylvatica, damage to trees

Sylwan 161 (5):430-439, 2017. DOI:

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