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The oldest scientific journal of forestry
Issue: 2017_1

Wykorzystanie lotniczej teledetekcji hiperspektralnej w klasyfikacji gatunkowej lasów strefy umiarkowanej
Airborne hyperspectral data for the classification of tree species a temperate forests

Abstract: The review focuses on use of airborne hyperspectral imagery in forest species classification. Studies mentioned in the review concern hyperspectral image classification with use of various methods. Only research, where study area is located in Europe or North America were selected. Articles were reviewed with respect to used pre−processing methods, methods of feature selection or feature extraction, algorithms of image classification and trees species which were classified. The whole process of acquiring and working with hyperspectral data is described. Different approaches (e.g. use or skip atmospheric corrections) were compared. In each article, various deciduous and conifer species were classified. Studies comparing several classification algorithms (Spectral Angle Mapper, Support Vector Machine, Random Forest) were mentioned. In most cases SVM gives the best results. Species, which are classified with the highest accuracy, include Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norway spruce (Picea abies). Broadleaved species are, in general, classified with lower accuracy than conifer ones. Within broadleaved trees, European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and oaks (Quercus sp.) are classified with the highest accuracy.

Key words: remote sensing, hyperspectral data, tree species classification

Sylwan 161 (1):3-17, 2017. DOI:

Dokładność szybkich metod inwentaryzacji leśnej mapy numerycznej
Accuracy of fast inventory techniques used for digital forests map update

Abstract: The functioning of the forest digital maps and conducting complex silviculture implemented in accordance with the diversified development creates great demand for a quick method of spatial data capture. Currently used data collectors and navigation receivers enable the measurements of the forest, but the results are not reliable taking into account their quality. In this study the evaluation of currently used measuring devices were realized and new, reliable solution that can streamline data capture in the field was proposed. The work was carried out in the Pułtusk Forest District (central Poland). We established five plots in the stand with the alder as a dominant species. 137 reference points were captured using classical surveying methods. We used the following data collectors: Motorola Omnii XT15 and Workabout Pro, Samsung Galaxy Core Plus smartphone and GIS Trimble ProXH navigation receiver. In addition, the unmanned aircraft i.e. popular on the market DJI Phantom 4 was also used. The accuracy was assessed by determining the error of the plot area and the accuracy of control points (MP). It was found that current popular data collectors and smartphones define the plot area with an error of about 3%, the same positioning of the object can be accurate from 2 to 6 meters (tab. 1). The results allow to conclude that the use of smartphones may be important only for draft assessment, and the realization of the measurement using the data collectors should always be preceded by the control measurement on the characteristic points. Significantly better results are obtained by the GIS class receivers (MP less than 2 meters) and using differential correction (MP less than 0.6 meters). However, these devices are used rarely in practice, despite universal access to the network of GNSS reference stations. The use of drone allowed to obtain images for the entire area in 15 minutes. The orthophotomap was automatically made in point−cloud technology. This method gave an error of 1.3% for estimating the plot area and 1.69 meters for the position of control points for objects borders. Given the falling prices of unmanned platforms and low labor intensity of this measurement method, we can assume that it will find widespread use in updating of forest digital maps.

Key words: RPAS, UAV, orthophotomap, forest, GNSS, measurements, digital forest map update

Sylwan 161 (1):18-26, 2017. DOI:

Wpływ wiatrołomu i degradacji drzewostanu na zróżnicowanie chemizmu wód w zlewni Potoku Kościeliskiego w obszarze Tatrzańskiego Parku Narodowego
Effect of wind damage to tree stands on spatial differences in water chemistry in the Kościeliski Stream catchment in the Tatra National Park

Abstract: The study focused on the effects of deforestation by heavy winds and tree stand damage produced by bark beetle invasion on water chemistry of mountainous catchment of Kościeliski Stream in the Tatra National Park (southern Poland). 200 samples of stream and spring water were collected in three series: in July, August and October 2015. Water samples obtained from areas characterized by tree stand damage caused by heavy winds were found to have much higher mean concentration of nitrate (15.44 mg/L) as well as a much higher overall mean nitrate content (3.44% mval/L) than samples obtained from non−deforested areas (3.26 mg/L and 0.78% mval/L). The increase in nitrate concentration and its share in overall water chemistry was high enough that the anion sequence for the deforested areas became altered from HCO3>SO4>NO3>Cl to HCO3>NO3>SO4>Cl. The mean change in water nitrate concentration in areas with tree stands damaged by the bark beetle was smaller (6.17 mg/L; 1.60% mval/L) than that for areas deforested by wind. The concentration of NO3 in stream water in deforested areas varied more than that in stream water in non−deforested areas.

Key words: water chemistry, nitrate, deforestation, Tatra National Park

Sylwan 161 (1):27-33, 2017. DOI:

Trinet P jako innowacyjna metoda ochrony drzewostanów świerkowych przed kornikiem drukarzem
Trinet P as an innovative method in the protection of Norway spruce stands against Ips typographus (L.)

Abstract: The lack of effective methods of forest protection against bark beetles in Norway spruce stands was the reason for undertaking the studies aimed at the assessment of efficacy of pheromone traps Trinet P that act as an ‘attract and kill' system to reduce the population of spruce bark beetle Ips typographus (Col.: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). The Trinet P trap consists of a triangular stand, on which the net containing alpha−cypermethrin is stretched. Each trap is baited by the synthetic pheromone attracting I. typographus beetles, which fly towards the trap and die due to the contact with the net coated with insecticide. The experiments were conducted in 2011−2012 on 6 experimental plots located in 26−82−years−old Norway spruce stands in Beskid Sądecki Mts. (southern Poland) that were threatened with the bark beetles. The experimental plot consisted of 100 m long stand edge exposed to bark beetle attack, with set of 5 traps installed in line. Similar stand edges without traps were used as control. The experiments were assumed before the I. typographus swarming, i.e. at the turn of April and May of each year. The treatment efficacy was estimated after 5 months by counting infested trees on plots with treatment and control variants. In the most cases the protective effect expressed by significantly lower number of infested trees on the edges with Trinet P traps. The symptoms of infestation by I. typographus were found up to 20% of trees in the stands protected with the Trinet P traps, while more than 80% of trees were attacked by the spruce bark beetle on the control plots. Despite these differences, the infestation density of trees in the stands protected and unprotected with traps was similar. No effect on non−target organisms was observed. The effectiveness of Trinet P traps is similar as of commonly used pheromone traps, thus this novel device can be used for the protection of Norway spruce stands against I. typographus.

Key words: bark beetles, Picea abies, forest protection, pheromone trap, alpha−cypermethrin

Sylwan 161 (1):34-39, 2017. DOI:

Pochodzenie drzewostanów świerkowych (Picea abies L. Karst.) z Puszczy Białowieskiej na tle regionu RDLP Białystok na podstawie analiz mitochondrialnego DNA
Origin of the Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) stands from Białowieża Forest at the level of Białystok Regional Directorate of the State Forestsbased on mitochondrial DNA analysis

Abstract: Considered to be the most natural of all other Polish stands Picea abies in Białowieża Forest has suffered severely of bark beetle damages for decades. In order to find out some historical events in native Norway spruce stands diversity at regional level, we carried out the study on polymorphism with DNA markers and performed Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) on the basis of genetic distance matrix. Two ranges (i.e. Baltico−Nordic and Hercyno−Carpathian) of Norway spruce cover north−eastern and southern Poland, respectively. The spruceless zone separates the these two ranges in lowland Poland. From genetic point of view, the Baltico−Nordic P. abies populations mainly harbor mitochondrial haplotype ‘c', whereas the spruces from the Hercyno−Carpathian range – haplotype ‘a'. Until recently, the Białowieża Forest has been considered to belong to the northern range of spruce occurrence in Europe. Seven populations from Białowieża Forest were studied (two of them from the Strict Reserve in Białowieski National Park) according to mitochondrial DNA diversity, and compared with genetic diversity found in 24 other populations located in Białystok Regional Directorate of the State Forests (north−eastern Poland). All studied spruce populations were more than 100 years old and were of natural origin. As result, the spruces from the Białowieża Forest harbored three mitochondrial haplotypes of the nad1 gene (‘c', ‘a' and ‘a1'), with the haplotype ‘a' being more frequently present (>51%) than the haplotype ‘c'. The spruce stands from Białowieża Forest have the highest gene diversity (h Nei=0.527) comparing to the other stands from the Białystok RDSF. The PCoA proved the particularity of the spruces from Białowieża Forest grouping them into one cluster of genetic similarity. Our data demonstrated that most of Norway spruces populations from Białystok RDSF harbor haplotype ‘c', which confirms their historical relationship with the Baltico−Nordic range of P. abies in Europe, while most spruces from Białowieża Forest have different historic origin, because they share high frequency of the southern haplotype ‘a'. It also turned out that Norway spruce populations from two different European ranges met in lowland Poland after the last glacial period, as proved by the presence of two mitochondrial haplotypes ‘a' and ‘c'. It can be assumed, that the spruceless zone was created by human activity in the past millennia. The results of all molecular analyses confirmed the unique character of spruces of Białowieża Forest, which is distinguished by the greater richness of the gene pool in comparison to the region of Białystok RDSF as well as good adaptation to local environmental conditions.

Key words: genetic diversity, mitochondrial DNA marker, postglacial migration routes, Białowieża Forest

Sylwan 161 (1):40-51, 2017. DOI:

Wpływ sposobu przygotowania gleby na dynamikę jej warunków wodnych na wydmach Kotliny Toruńskiej
Effect of site preparation method on dynamics of soil water conditions on inland dunes of the Toruń Basin

Abstract: The research was conducted in a young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) plantation located in a dune area of the Toruń Basin (N Poland). The aim of the study was to investigate differences in dynamics of soil water conditions followed different method used for site preparation. The three plots were investigated in the study: belt of soil prepared by a mill, north−facing slope of a dune (FR−N), belt of soil prepared with a mill, south−facing slope of a dune (FR−S) and soil prepared with a plough (furrows) on the ridge of a small aeolian mound (LPZ). On each plot soil samples were taken and soil moisture was regularly measured from April to December of 2013 (the TDR method). The measurements of soil moisture were taken at four depths (3, 10, 25 and 50 cm) at intervals of ca. 2 weeks. Additionally, soil moisture was also measured on 25.08.2015. It was done to determine soil water conditions for a deep summer drought (the measurements were taken twice this day – just before and after rain which turned to be the first since ca. a month). Reserves of soil moisture and shares of water unavailable to plants were calculated for every measure day for each study plot. As a result of higher organic carbon content, values of soil actual moisture as well as reserves of soil moisture were almost regularly higher for belts mixed with a mill than for furrows prepared with a plough (fig. 1, 3). Opposite relation was found, however for the summer drought (tab. 2). This was explained by the higher repellence of rich in organic mater, dried material occurring in belts. On 25.08.2015 much lower improvement of water conditions after rain was also stated for this material than for topsoil in LPZ. Unfavoured soil water conditions for plants occurring in belts in dry periods could explain relatively low dynamics of pine growth revealed for the variant of soil preparation in a previous study. However, it was concluded that a forest mill should be recommended for forestry, because the device much less disturbs topsoil than a plough. Besides, differences in growth parameters of pines followed different methods of soil preparation used before planting decline in next years of a stand growth.

Key words: soil, site preparation, forest site, inland dunes, topography, Podzols, dry areas

Sylwan 161 (1):52-61, 2017. DOI:

Akumulacja węgla organicznego w glebach różnych typów siedlisk leśnych
Organic carbon accumulation in soil of different forest site types

Abstract: The objective of the paper was to estimate i) the carbon accumulation in soils of different forest site types as well as ii) its changes with regard to the depth of the soil profile. The investigation was carried out in the Przedbórz Forest District (central Poland) on 43 study plots, including different forest sites – fresh coniferous forest (Bśw), fresh mixed coniferous forest (BMśw), fresh mixed broadleaved forest (LMśw) and fresh broadleaved forest (Lśw). On each plot soil pits were dug and samples for laboratory analysis were collected. The following characteristics were determined in the soil samples: pH, the content of organic C and total N, particle−size distribution, the content of exchangeable Ca, Mg, Na and K, and hydrolityc acidity. The obtained results demonstrated that soils of Bśw, BMśw and LMśw sites characterized by higher carbon accumulation in surface horizon to 50 cm depth compared to the most eutrophic sites (Lśw). The rate of carbon accumulation in forest soils depend on the humus type which is connected with species composition of stands. Domination of Scots pine in stand affects the formation of ectohumus and leads to higher C accumulation in surface horizons on Bśw, BMśw and LMśw sites. In soils of Bśw, BMśw and LMśw sites carbon stored in the horizons to 50 cm constitutes 64−94% of the total carbon accumulated, while on the eutrophic sites (Lśw) this share amounts to 39−72%. The value of the total carbon stock in soils of fresh forest sites can be estimated on the basis of carbon stock in horizons to 50 cm depth.

Key words: soil organic matter, carbon stock in soils, forest soil properties, type of forest site

Sylwan 161 (1):62-70, 2017. DOI:

Wpływ suszy na ściółkowo−glebowe zgrupowania skoczogonków (Collembola, Hexapoda) w lesie mieszanym
Influence of drought on epigeic soil collembolan communities (Hexapoda) of moderately humid mixed deciduous forest

Abstract: The resilience of forest ecosystems to climate changes such as elevated temperature and frequent drought episodes, strongly depends on how the soil subsystems and its inhabitants responds to these perturbation. The epigeic soil Collembola communities of mature mixed deciduous forest and adjacent young plantation on moderately humid soil were compared in two consecutive years, out of which the second one was marked by significant deficiency of precipitation in growing−season. The study plots were established on the area of experimental forests of Warsaw University of Life Science−SGGW in Rogów (central Poland). The objectives of the study was to assess the sensitivity of forest Collembola communities to drought stress and to check if the reaction depends on stand age. We also aimed to test if an indicator species of climate changes can be appointed. The results showed that three months drought episode had negative impact on forest Collembola communities of mature stands, while communities of young plantation were not affected. The reduction of total abundance of Collembola and clear changes in communities structure in mature stand was detected in the year of lower precipitation. The Collembola communities of young plantation were also significantly transformed, but in result of clear cutting and soil preparation. Therefore, the successional changes were the most evident process in these communities and there were no signs of drought influence. Among the most numerous species in Collembola communities of mature forest Isotomiella minor was appointed as an indicator of drought, because its abundance was drastically reduced in the year of lower precipitation. The small number of specimen of this species in young plantation may also prove its sensitivity to deficiency of humidity in soil. The significantly negative response to drought episode was documented also for Psuedosinella horaki, Micraphorura absoloni and Megalothorax minimus. Our study provided strong evidence that the drought, which lasted only three months, had a detrimental effect on forest Collembola communities.

Key words: soil fauna, mature forest, young plantation, precipitation paucity, indicator species

Sylwan 161 (1):71-80, 2017. DOI:

Wymierne cechy elementów przewodzących w drewnie
Measurable traits of tracheary elements in wood

Abstract: The trade−off in case of water transport is captured in ecological theory by the safety vs. efficiency concept. As the efficiency of transport of water depends mainly on the dimensions of the conductive elements in wood, this paper presents the survey on some methods that allow to quantify the tracheids and vessels attributes including their diameter (tangential/radial, hydraulic), length as well as arrangement (axial, radial). Each trait of conductive elements is briefly described and formula for its calculation is given. Moreover, the usefulness of measurable traits for calculating the meso− and xeromorphy index is presented. Given the fact that the structure of pits and complexity of perforation plate (scalariform, ladder−like) are important factors in wood hydraulic resistance, the following parameters were additionally characterized: the pit membrane diameter, pit membrane thickness, pit chamber depth and the number of bars per perforation plate between the adjacent vessel elements.

Key words: tracheids, bordered pits, vessels, cavitation, perforation plate, xeromorphy index, mesomorphy index

Sylwan 161 (1):81-88, 2017. DOI:

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